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<chapter id='migration'>
<title>Migrating to a Newer Yocto Project Release</title>
<para>
This chapter provides information you can use to migrate work to a
newer Yocto Project release. You can find the same information in the
release notes for a given release.
</para>
<section id='general-migration-considerations'>
<title>General Migration Considerations</title>
<para>
Some considerations are not tied to a specific Yocto Project
release.
This section presents information you should consider when
migrating to any new Yocto Project release.
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><emphasis>Dealing with Customized Recipes</emphasis>:
Issues could arise if you take older recipes that contain
customizations and simply copy them forward expecting them
to work after you migrate to new Yocto Project metadata.
For example, suppose you have a recipe in your layer that is
a customized version of a core recipe copied from the earlier
release, rather than through the use of an append file.
When you migrate to a newer version of Yocto Project, the
metadata (e.g. perhaps an include file used by the recipe)
could have changed in a way that would break the build.
Say, for example, a function is removed from an include file
and the customized recipe tries to call that function.
</para>
<para>You could "forward-port" all your customizations in your
recipe so that everything works for the new release.
However, this is not the optimal solution as you would have
to repeat this process with each new release if changes
occur that give rise to problems.</para>
<para>The better solution (where practical) is to use append
files (<filename>*.bbappend</filename>) to capture any
customizations you want to make to a recipe.
Doing so, isolates your changes from the main recipe making
them much more manageable.
However, sometimes it is not practical to use an append
file.
A good example of this is when introducing a newer or older
version of a recipe in another layer.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis>Updating Append Files</emphasis>:
Since append files generally only contain your customizations,
they often do not need to be adjusted for new releases.
However, if the <filename>.bbappend</filename> file is
specific to a particular version of the recipe (i.e. its
name does not use the % wildcard) and the version of the
recipe to which it is appending has changed, then you will
at a minimum need to rename the append file to match the
name of the recipe file.
A mismatch between an append file and its corresponding
recipe file (<filename>.bb</filename>) will
trigger an error during parsing.</para>
<para>Depending on the type of customization the append file
applies, other incompatibilities might occur when you
upgrade.
For example, if your append file applies a patch and the
recipe to which it is appending is updated to a newer
version, the patch might no longer apply.
If this is the case and assuming the patch is still needed,
you must modify the patch file so that it does apply.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='moving-to-the-yocto-project-1.3-release'>
<title>Moving to the Yocto Project 1.3 Release</title>
<para>
This section provides migration information for moving to the
Yocto Project 1.3 Release from the prior release.
</para>
<section id='1.3-local-configuration'>
<title>Local Configuration</title>
<para>
Differences include changes for
<link linkend='var-SSTATE_MIRRORS'><filename>SSTATE_MIRRORS</filename></link>
and <filename>bblayers.conf</filename>.
</para>
<section id='migration-1.3-sstate-mirrors'>
<title>SSTATE_MIRRORS</title>
<para>
The shared state cache (sstate-cache), as pointed to by
<link linkend='var-SSTATE_DIR'><filename>SSTATE_DIR</filename></link>,
by default now has two-character subdirectories to prevent
issues arising from too many files in the same directory.
Also, native sstate-cache packages, which are built to run
on the host system, will go into a subdirectory named using
the distro ID string.
If you copy the newly structured sstate-cache to a mirror
location (either local or remote) and then point to it in
<link linkend='var-SSTATE_MIRRORS'><filename>SSTATE_MIRRORS</filename></link>,
you need to append "PATH" to the end of the mirror URL so that
the path used by BitBake before the mirror substitution is
appended to the path used to access the mirror.
Here is an example:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
SSTATE_MIRRORS = "file://.* http://<replaceable>someserver</replaceable>.tld/share/sstate/PATH"
</literallayout>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.3-bblayers-conf'>
<title>bblayers.conf</title>
<para>
The <filename>meta-yocto</filename> layer consists of two parts
that correspond to the Poky reference distribution and the
reference hardware Board Support Packages (BSPs), respectively:
<filename>meta-yocto</filename> and
<filename>meta-yocto-bsp</filename>.
When running BitBake for the first time after upgrading,
your <filename>conf/bblayers.conf</filename> file will be
updated to handle this change and you will be asked to
re-run or restart for the changes to take effect.
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='1.3-recipes'>
<title>Recipes</title>
<para>
Differences include changes for the following:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>Python function whitespace</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>proto=</filename> in <filename>SRC_URI</filename></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>nativesdk</filename></para></listitem>
<listitem><para>Task recipes</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename></para></listitem>
<listitem><para>Removed recipes</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
<section id='migration-1.3-python-function-whitespace'>
<title>Python Function Whitespace</title>
<para>
All Python functions must now use four spaces for indentation.
Previously, an inconsistent mix of spaces and tabs existed,
which made extending these functions using
<filename>_append</filename> or <filename>_prepend</filename>
complicated given that Python treats whitespace as
syntactically significant.
If you are defining or extending any Python functions (e.g.
<filename>populate_packages</filename>, <filename>do_unpack</filename>,
<filename>do_patch</filename> and so forth) in custom recipes
or classes, you need to ensure you are using consistent
four-space indentation.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.3-proto=-in-src-uri'>
<title>proto= in SRC_URI</title>
<para>
Any use of <filename>proto=</filename> in
<link linkend='var-SRC_URI'><filename>SRC_URI</filename></link>
needs to be changed to <filename>protocol=</filename>.
In particular, this applies to the following URIs:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><filename>svn://</filename></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>bzr://</filename></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>hg://</filename></para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>osc://</filename></para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
Other URIs were already using <filename>protocol=</filename>.
This change improves consistency.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.3-nativesdk'>
<title>nativesdk</title>
<para>
The suffix <filename>nativesdk</filename> is now implemented
as a prefix, which simplifies a lot of the packaging code for
<filename>nativesdk</filename> recipes.
All custom <filename>nativesdk</filename> recipes, which are
relocatable packages that are native to
<link linkend='var-SDK_ARCH'><filename>SDK_ARCH</filename></link>,
and any references need to be updated to use
<filename>nativesdk-*</filename> instead of
<filename>*-nativesdk</filename>.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.3-task-recipes'>
<title>Task Recipes</title>
<para>
"Task" recipes are now known as "Package groups" and have
been renamed from <filename>task-*.bb</filename> to
<filename>packagegroup-*.bb</filename>.
Existing references to the previous <filename>task-*</filename>
names should work in most cases as there is an automatic
upgrade path for most packages.
However, you should update references in your own recipes and
configurations as they could be removed in future releases.
You should also rename any custom <filename>task-*</filename>
recipes to <filename>packagegroup-*</filename>, and change
them to inherit <filename>packagegroup</filename> instead of
<filename>task</filename>, as well as taking the opportunity
to remove anything now handled by
<filename>packagegroup.bbclass</filename>, such as providing
<filename>-dev</filename> and <filename>-dbg</filename>
packages, setting
<link linkend='var-LIC_FILES_CHKSUM'><filename>LIC_FILES_CHKSUM</filename></link>,
and so forth.
See the
"<link linkend='ref-classes-packagegroup'><filename>packagegroup.bbclass</filename></link>"
section for further details.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.3-image-features'>
<title>IMAGE_FEATURES</title>
<para>
Image recipes that previously included "apps-console-core"
in <link linkend='var-IMAGE_FEATURES'><filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename></link>
should now include "splash" instead to enable the boot-up
splash screen.
Retaining "apps-console-core" will still include the splash
screen but generates a warning.
The "apps-x11-core" and "apps-x11-games"
<filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename> features have been removed.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.3-removed-recipes'>
<title>Removed Recipes</title>
<para>
The following recipes have been removed.
For most of them, it is unlikely that you would have any
references to them in your own
<link linkend='metadata'>Metadata</link>.
However, you should check your metadata against this list to be sure:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>libx11-trim</filename></emphasis>:
Replaced by <filename>libx11</filename>, which has a negligible
size difference with modern Xorg.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>xserver-xorg-lite</filename></emphasis>:
Use <filename>xserver-xorg</filename>, which has a negligible
size difference when DRI and GLX modules are not installed.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>xserver-kdrive</filename></emphasis>:
Effectively unmaintained for many years.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>mesa-xlib</filename></emphasis>:
No longer serves any purpose.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>galago</filename></emphasis>:
Replaced by telepathy.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>gail</filename></emphasis>:
Functionality was integrated into GTK+ 2.13.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>eggdbus</filename></emphasis>:
No longer needed.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>gcc-*-intermediate</filename></emphasis>:
The build has been restructured to avoid the need for
this step.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>libgsmd</filename></emphasis>:
Unmaintained for many years.
Functionality now provided by
<filename>ofono</filename> instead.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis>contacts, dates, tasks, eds-tools</emphasis>:
Largely unmaintained PIM application suite.
It has been moved to <filename>meta-gnome</filename>
in <filename>meta-openembedded</filename>.</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
In addition to the previously listed changes, the
<filename>meta-demoapps</filename> directory has also been removed
because the recipes in it were not being maintained and many
had become obsolete or broken.
Additionally, these recipes were not parsed in the default configuration.
Many of these recipes are already provided in an updated and
maintained form within the OpenEmbedded community layers such as
<filename>meta-oe</filename> and <filename>meta-gnome</filename>.
For the remainder, you can now find them in the
<filename>meta-extras</filename> repository, which is in the
Yocto Project
<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_OM_URL;#source-repositories'>Source Repositories</ulink>.
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='1.3-linux-kernel-naming'>
<title>Linux Kernel Naming</title>
<para>
The naming scheme for kernel output binaries has been changed to
now include
<link linkend='var-PE'><filename>PE</filename></link> as part of the
filename:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
KERNEL_IMAGE_BASE_NAME ?= "${KERNEL_IMAGETYPE}-${PE}-${PV}-${PR}-${MACHINE}-${DATETIME}"
</literallayout>
</para>
<para>
Because the <filename>PE</filename> variable is not set by default,
these binary files could result with names that include two dash
characters.
Here is an example:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
bzImage--3.10.9+git0+cd502a8814_7144bcc4b8-r0-qemux86-64-20130830085431.bin
</literallayout>
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='moving-to-the-yocto-project-1.4-release'>
<title>Moving to the Yocto Project 1.4 Release</title>
<para>
This section provides migration information for moving to the
Yocto Project 1.4 Release from the prior release.
</para>
<section id='migration-1.4-bitbake'>
<title>BitBake</title>
<para>
Differences include the following:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><emphasis>Comment Continuation:</emphasis>
If a comment ends with a line continuation (\) character,
then the next line must also be a comment.
Any instance where this is not the case, now triggers
a warning.
You must either remove the continuation character, or be
sure the next line is a comment.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis>Package Name Overrides:</emphasis>
The runtime package specific variables
<link linkend='var-RDEPENDS'><filename>RDEPENDS</filename></link>,
<link linkend='var-RRECOMMENDS'><filename>RRECOMMENDS</filename></link>,
<link linkend='var-RSUGGESTS'><filename>RSUGGESTS</filename></link>,
<link linkend='var-RPROVIDES'><filename>RPROVIDES</filename></link>,
<link linkend='var-RCONFLICTS'><filename>RCONFLICTS</filename></link>,
<link linkend='var-RREPLACES'><filename>RREPLACES</filename></link>,
<link linkend='var-FILES'><filename>FILES</filename></link>,
<link linkend='var-ALLOW_EMPTY'><filename>ALLOW_EMPTY</filename></link>,
and the pre, post, install, and uninstall script functions
<filename>pkg_preinst</filename>,
<filename>pkg_postinst</filename>,
<filename>pkg_prerm</filename>, and
<filename>pkg_postrm</filename> should always have a
package name override.
For example, use <filename>RDEPENDS_${PN}</filename> for
the main package instead of <filename>RDEPENDS</filename>.
BitBake uses more strict checks when it parses recipes.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.4-build-behavior'>
<title>Build Behavior</title>
<para>
Differences include the following:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><emphasis>Shared State Code:</emphasis>
The shared state code has been optimized to avoid running
unnecessary tasks.
For example, the following no longer populates the target
sysroot since that is not necessary:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
$ bitbake -c rootfs <replaceable>some-image</replaceable>
</literallayout>
Instead, the system just needs to extract the output
package contents, re-create the packages, and construct
the root filesystem.
This change is unlikely to cause any problems unless
you have missing declared dependencies.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis>Scanning Directory Names:</emphasis>
When scanning for files in
<link linkend='var-SRC_URI'><filename>SRC_URI</filename></link>,
the build system now uses
<link linkend='var-FILESOVERRIDES'><filename>FILESOVERRIDES</filename></link>
instead of <link linkend='var-OVERRIDES'><filename>OVERRIDES</filename></link>
for the directory names.
In general, the values previously in
<filename>OVERRIDES</filename> are now in
<filename>FILESOVERRIDES</filename> as well.
However, if you relied upon an additional value
you previously added to <filename>OVERRIDES</filename>,
you might now need to add it to
<filename>FILESOVERRIDES</filename> unless you are already
adding it through the
<link linkend='var-MACHINEOVERRIDES'><filename>MACHINEOVERRIDES</filename></link>
or <link linkend='var-DISTROOVERRIDES'><filename>DISTROOVERRIDES</filename></link>
variables, as appropriate.
For more related changes, see the
"<link linkend='migration-1.4-variables'>Variables</link>"
section.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.4-proxies-and-fetching-source'>
<title>Proxies and Fetching Source</title>
<para>
A new <filename>oe-git-proxy</filename> script has been added to
replace previous methods of handling proxies and fetching source
from Git.
See the <filename>meta-yocto/conf/site.conf.sample</filename> file
for information on how to use this script.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.4-custom-interfaces-file-netbase-change'>
<title>Custom Interfaces File (netbase change)</title>
<para>
If you have created your own custom
<filename>etc/network/interfaces</filename> file by creating
an append file for the <filename>netbase</filename> recipe,
you now need to create an append file for the
<filename>init-ifupdown</filename> recipe instead, which you can
find in the
<link linkend='source-directory'>Source Directory</link>
at <filename>meta/recipes-core/init-ifupdown</filename>.
For information on how to use append files, see the
"<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#using-bbappend-files'>Using .bbappend Files</ulink>"
section in the Yocto Project Development Tasks Manual.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.4-remote-debugging'>
<title>Remote Debugging</title>
<para>
Support for remote debugging with the Eclipse IDE is now
separated into an image feature
(<filename>eclipse-debug</filename>) that corresponds to the
<filename>packagegroup-core-eclipse-debug</filename> package group.
Previously, the debugging feature was included through the
<filename>tools-debug</filename> image feature, which corresponds
to the <filename>packagegroup-core-tools-debug</filename>
package group.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.4-variables'>
<title>Variables</title>
<para>
The following variables have changed:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>SANITY_TESTED_DISTROS</filename>:</emphasis>
This variable now uses a distribution ID, which is composed
of the host distributor ID followed by the release.
Previously,
<link linkend='var-SANITY_TESTED_DISTROS'><filename>SANITY_TESTED_DISTROS</filename></link>
was composed of the description field.
For example, "Ubuntu 12.10" becomes "Ubuntu-12.10".
You do not need to worry about this change if you are not
specifically setting this variable, or if you are
specifically setting it to "".
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>SRC_URI</filename>:</emphasis>
The <filename>${</filename><link linkend='var-PN'><filename>PN</filename></link><filename>}</filename>,
<filename>${</filename><link linkend='var-PF'><filename>PF</filename></link><filename>}</filename>,
<filename>${</filename><link linkend='var-P'><filename>P</filename></link><filename>}</filename>,
and <filename>FILE_DIRNAME</filename> directories have been
dropped from the default value of the
<link linkend='var-FILESPATH'><filename>FILESPATH</filename></link>
variable, which is used as the search path for finding files
referred to in
<link linkend='var-SRC_URI'><filename>SRC_URI</filename></link>.
If you have a recipe that relied upon these directories,
which would be unusual, then you will need to add the
appropriate paths within the recipe or, alternatively,
rearrange the files.
The most common locations are still covered by
<filename>${BP}</filename>, <filename>${BPN}</filename>,
and "files", which all remain in the default value of
<link linkend='var-FILESPATH'><filename>FILESPATH</filename></link>.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-target-package-management-with-rpm'>
<title>Target Package Management with RPM</title>
<para>
If runtime package management is enabled and the RPM backend
is selected, Smart is now installed for package download, dependency
resolution, and upgrades instead of Zypper.
For more information on how to use Smart, run the following command
on the target:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
smart --help
</literallayout>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.4-recipes-moved'>
<title>Recipes Moved</title>
<para>
The following recipes were moved from their previous locations
because they are no longer used by anything in
the OpenEmbedded-Core:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>clutter-box2d</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-oe</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>evolution-data-server</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-gnome</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>gthumb</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-gnome</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>gtkhtml2</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-oe</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>gupnp</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-multimedia</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>gypsy</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-oe</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>libcanberra</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-gnome</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>libgdata</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-gnome</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>libmusicbrainz</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-multimedia</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>metacity</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-gnome</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>polkit</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-oe</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>zeroconf</filename>:</emphasis>
Now resides in the <filename>meta-networking</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.4-removals-and-renames'>
<title>Removals and Renames</title>
<para>
The following list shows what has been removed or renamed:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>evieext</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because it has been removed from
<filename>xserver</filename> since 2008.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis>Gtk+ DirectFB:</emphasis>
Removed support because upstream Gtk+ no longer supports it
as of version 2.18.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>libxfontcache / xfontcacheproto</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because they were removed from the Xorg server in 2008.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>libxp / libxprintapputil / libxprintutil / printproto</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because the XPrint server was removed from
Xorg in 2008.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>libxtrap / xtrapproto</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because their functionality was broken upstream.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis>linux-yocto 3.0 kernel:</emphasis>
Removed with linux-yocto 3.8 kernel being added.
The linux-yocto 3.2 and linux-yocto 3.4 kernels remain
as part of the release.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>lsbsetup</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed with functionality now provided by
<filename>lsbtest</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>matchbox-stroke</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because it was never more than a proof-of-concept.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>matchbox-wm-2 / matchbox-theme-sato-2</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because they are not maintained.
However, <filename>matchbox-wm</filename> and
<filename>matchbox-theme-sato</filename> are still
provided.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>mesa-dri</filename>:</emphasis>
Renamed to <filename>mesa</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>mesa-xlib</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because it was no longer useful.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>mutter</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because nothing ever uses it and the recipe is
very old.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>orinoco-conf</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because it has become obsolete.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>update-modules</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because it is no longer used.
The kernel module <filename>postinstall</filename> and
<filename>postrm</filename> scripts can now do the same
task without the use of this script.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>web</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because it is not maintained. Superseded by
<filename>web-webkit</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>xf86bigfontproto</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because upstream it has been disabled by default
since 2007.
Nothing uses <filename>xf86bigfontproto</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>xf86rushproto</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed because its dependency in
<filename>xserver</filename> was spurious and it was
removed in 2005.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis><filename>zypper / libzypp / sat-solver</filename>:</emphasis>
Removed and been functionally replaced with Smart
(<filename>python-smartpm</filename>) when RPM packaging
is used and package management is enabled on the target.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='moving-to-the-yocto-project-1.5-release'>
<title>Moving to the Yocto Project 1.5 Release</title>
<para>
This section provides migration information for moving to the
Yocto Project 1.5 Release from the prior release.
</para>
<section id='migration-1.5-host-dependency-changes'>
<title>Host Dependency Changes</title>
<para>
The OpenEmbedded build system now has some additional requirements
on the host system:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>Python 2.7.3+</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>Tar 1.24+</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>Git 1.7.8+</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>Patched version of Make if you are using
3.82.
Most distributions that provide Make 3.82 use the patched
version.</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
If the Linux distribution you are using on your build host
does not provide packages for these, you can install and use
the Buildtools tarball, which provides an SDK-like environment
containing them.
</para>
<para>
For more information on this requirement, see the
"<link linkend='required-git-tar-python-and-gcc-versions'>Required Git, tar, Python and gcc Versions</link>"
section.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-atom-pc-bsp'>
<title><filename>atom-pc</filename> Board Support Package (BSP)</title>
<para>
The <filename>atom-pc</filename> hardware reference BSP has been
replaced by a <filename>genericx86</filename> BSP.
This BSP is not necessarily guaranteed to work on all x86
hardware, but it will run on a wider range of systems than the
<filename>atom-pc</filename> did.
<note>
Additionally, a <filename>genericx86-64</filename> BSP has
been added for 64-bit Atom systems.
</note>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-bitbake'>
<title>BitBake</title>
<para>
The following changes have been made that relate to BitBake:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
BitBake now supports a <filename>_remove</filename>
operator.
The addition of this operator means you will have to
rename any items in recipe space (functions, variables)
whose names currently contain
<filename>_remove_</filename> or end with
<filename>_remove</filename> to avoid unexpected behavior.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
BitBake's global method pool has been removed.
This method is not particularly useful and led to clashes
between recipes containing functions that had the
same name.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The "none" server backend has been removed.
The "process" server backend has been serving well as the
default for a long time now.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>bitbake-runtask</filename> script has been
removed.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>${</filename><link linkend='var-P'><filename>P</filename></link><filename>}</filename>
and
<filename>${</filename><link linkend='var-PF'><filename>PF</filename></link><filename>}</filename>
are no longer added to
<link linkend='var-PROVIDES'><filename>PROVIDES</filename></link>
by default in <filename>bitbake.conf</filename>.
These version-specific <filename>PROVIDES</filename>
items were seldom used.
Attempting to use them could result in two versions being
built simultaneously rather than just one version due to
the way BitBake resolves dependencies.</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-qa-warnings'>
<title>QA Warnings</title>
<para>
The following changes have been made to the package QA checks:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
If you have customized
<link linkend='var-ERROR_QA'><filename>ERROR_QA</filename></link>
or <link linkend='var-WARN_QA'><filename>WARN_QA</filename></link>
values in your configuration, check that they contain all of
the issues that you wish to be reported.
Previous Yocto Project versions contained a bug that meant
that any item not mentioned in <filename>ERROR_QA</filename>
or <filename>WARN_QA</filename> would be treated as a
warning.
Consequently, several important items were not already in
the default value of <filename>WARN_QA</filename>.
All of the possible QA checks are now documented in the
"<link linkend='ref-classes-insane'><filename>insane.bbclass</filename></link>"
section.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
An additional QA check has been added to check if
<filename>/usr/share/info/dir</filename> is being installed.
Your recipe should delete this file within
<link linkend='ref-tasks-install'><filename>do_install</filename></link>
if "make install" is installing it.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
If you are using the buildhistory class, the check for the
package version going backwards is now controlled using a
standard QA check.
Thus, if you have customized your
<filename>ERROR_QA</filename> or
<filename>WARN_QA</filename> values and still wish to have
this check performed, you should add
"version-going-backwards" to your value for one or the
other variables depending on how you wish it to be handled.
See the documented QA checks in the
"<link linkend='ref-classes-insane'><filename>insane.bbclass</filename></link>"
section.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-directory-layout-changes'>
<title>Directory Layout Changes</title>
<para>
The following directory changes exist:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
Output SDK installer files are now named to include the
image name and tuning architecture through the
<link linkend='var-SDK_NAME'><filename>SDK_NAME</filename></link>
variable.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
Images and related files are now installed into a directory
that is specific to the machine, instead of a parent
directory containing output files for multiple machines.
The
<link linkend='var-DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE'><filename>DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE</filename></link>
variable continues to point to the directory containing
images for the current
<link linkend='var-MACHINE'><filename>MACHINE</filename></link>
and should be used anywhere there is a need to refer to
this directory.
The <filename>runqemu</filename> script now uses this
variable to find images and kernel binaries and will use
BitBake to determine the directory.
Alternatively, you can set the
<filename>DEPLOY_DIR_IMAGE</filename> variable in the
external environment.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
When buildhistory is enabled, its output is now written
under the
<link linkend='build-directory'>Build Directory</link>
rather than
<link linkend='var-TMPDIR'><filename>TMPDIR</filename></link>.
Doing so makes it easier to delete
<filename>TMPDIR</filename> and preserve the build history.
Additionally, data for produced SDKs is now split by
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_NAME'><filename>IMAGE_NAME</filename></link>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>pkgdata</filename> directory produced as
part of the packaging process has been collapsed into a
single machine-specific directory.
This directory is located under
<filename>sysroots</filename> and uses a machine-specific
name (i.e.
<filename>tmp/sysroots/<replaceable>machine</replaceable>/pkgdata</filename>).
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-shortened-git-srcrev-values'>
<title>Shortened Git <filename>SRCREV</filename> Values</title>
<para>
BitBake will now shorten revisions from Git repositories from the
normal 40 characters down to 10 characters within
<link linkend='var-SRCPV'><filename>SRCPV</filename></link>
for improved usability in path and file names.
This change should be safe within contexts where these revisions
are used because the chances of spatially close collisions
is very low.
Distant collisions are not a major issue in the way
the values are used.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-image-features'>
<title><filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename></title>
<para>
The following changes have been made that relate to
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_FEATURES'><filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename></link>:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
The value of <filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename> is now
validated to ensure invalid feature items are not added.
Some users mistakenly add package names to this variable
instead of using
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_INSTALL'><filename>IMAGE_INSTALL</filename></link>
in order to have the package added to the image, which does
not work.
This change is intended to catch those kinds of situations.
Valid <filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename> are drawn from
<filename>PACKAGE_GROUP</filename> definitions,
<link linkend='var-COMPLEMENTARY_GLOB'><filename>COMPLEMENTARY_GLOB</filename></link>
and a new "validitems" varflag on
<filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename>.
The "validitems" varflag change allows additional features
to be added if they are not provided using the previous
two mechanisms.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The previously deprecated "apps-console-core"
<filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename> item is no longer
supported.
Add "splash" to <filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename> if you
wish to have the splash screen enabled, since this is
all that apps-console-core was doing.</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-run'>
<title><filename>/run</filename></title>
<para>
The <filename>/run</filename> directory from the Filesystem
Hierarchy Standard 3.0 has been introduced.
You can find some of the implications for this change
<ulink url='http://cgit.openembedded.org/openembedded-core/commit/?id=0e326280a15b0f2c4ef2ef4ec441f63f55b75873'>here</ulink>.
The change also means that recipes that install files to
<filename>/var/run</filename> must be changed.
You can find a guide on how to make these changes
<ulink url='http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.comp.handhelds.openembedded/58530'>here</ulink>.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-removal-of-package-manager-database-within-image-recipes'>
<title>Removal of Package Manager Database Within Image Recipes</title>
<para>
The image <filename>core-image-minimal</filename> no longer adds
<filename>remove_packaging_data_files</filename> to
<link linkend='var-ROOTFS_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND'><filename>ROOTFS_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND</filename></link>.
This addition is now handled automatically when "package-management"
is not in
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_FEATURES'><filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename></link>.
If you have custom image recipes that make this addition,
you should remove the lines, as they are not needed and might
interfere with correct operation of postinstall scripts.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-images-now-rebuild-only-on-changes-instead-of-every-time'>
<title>Images Now Rebuild Only on Changes Instead of Every Time</title>
<para>
The
<link linkend='ref-tasks-rootfs'><filename>do_rootfs</filename></link>
and other related image
construction tasks are no longer marked as "nostamp".
Consequently, they will only be re-executed when their inputs have
changed.
Previous versions of the OpenEmbedded build system always rebuilt
the image when requested rather when necessary.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-task-recipes'>
<title>Task Recipes</title>
<para>
The previously deprecated <filename>task.bbclass</filename> has
now been dropped.
For recipes that previously inherited from this class, you should
rename them from <filename>task-*</filename> to
<filename>packagegroup-*</filename> and inherit packagegroup
instead.
</para>
<para>
For more information, see the
"<link linkend='ref-classes-packagegroup'><filename>packagegroup.bbclass</filename></link>"
section.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-busybox'>
<title>BusyBox</title>
<para>
By default, we now split BusyBox into two binaries:
one that is suid root for those components that need it, and
another for the rest of the components.
Splitting BusyBox allows for optimization that eliminates the
<filename>tinylogin</filename> recipe as recommended by upstream.
You can disable this split by setting
<link linkend='var-BUSYBOX_SPLIT_SUID'><filename>BUSYBOX_SPLIT_SUID</filename></link>
to "0".
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-automated-image-testing'>
<title>Automated Image Testing</title>
<para>
A new automated image testing framework has been added
through the
<link linkend='ref-classes-testimage*'><filename>testimage.bbclass</filename></link>
class.
This framework replaces the older
<filename>imagetest-qemu</filename> framework.
</para>
<para>
You can learn more about performing automated image tests in the
"<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#performing-automated-runtime-testing'>Performing Automated Runtime Testing</ulink>"
section in the Yocto Project Development Tasks Manual.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-build-history'>
<title>Build History</title>
<para>
Following are changes to Build History:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
Installed package sizes:
<filename>installed-package-sizes.txt</filename> for an
image now records the size of the files installed by each
package instead of the size of each compressed package
archive file.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The dependency graphs (<filename>depends*.dot</filename>)
now use the actual package names instead of replacing
dashes, dots and plus signs with underscores.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>buildhistory-diff</filename> and
<filename>buildhistory-collect-srcrevs</filename>
utilities have improved command-line handling.
Use the <filename>--help</filename> option for
each utility for more information on the new syntax.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
For more information on Build History, see the
"<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#maintaining-build-output-quality'>Maintaining Build Output Quality</ulink>"
section in the Yocto Project Development Tasks Manual.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-udev'>
<title><filename>udev</filename></title>
<para>
Following are changes to <filename>udev</filename>:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
<filename>udev</filename> no longer brings in
<filename>udev-extraconf</filename> automatically
through
<link linkend='var-RRECOMMENDS'><filename>RRECOMMENDS</filename></link>,
since this was originally intended to be optional.
If you need the extra rules, then add
<filename>udev-extraconf</filename> to your image.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>udev</filename> no longer brings in
<filename>pciutils-ids</filename> or
<filename>usbutils-ids</filename> through
<filename>RRECOMMENDS</filename>.
These are not needed by <filename>udev</filename> itself
and removing them saves around 350KB.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-removed-renamed-recipes'>
<title>Removed and Renamed Recipes</title>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>linux-yocto</filename> 3.2 kernel has been
removed.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>libtool-nativesdk</filename> has been renamed to
<filename>nativesdk-libtool</filename>.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>tinylogin</filename> has been removed.
It has been replaced by a suid portion of Busybox.
See the
"<link linkend='migration-1.5-busybox'>BusyBox</link>" section
for more information.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>external-python-tarball</filename> has been renamed
to <filename>buildtools-tarball</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>web-webkit</filename> has been removed.
It has been functionally replaced by
<filename>midori</filename>.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>imake</filename> has been removed.
It is no longer needed by any other recipe.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>transfig-native</filename> has been removed.
It is no longer needed by any other recipe.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>anjuta-remote-run</filename> has been removed.
Anjuta IDE integration has not been officially supported for
several releases.</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.5-other-changes'>
<title>Other Changes</title>
<para>
Following is a list of short entries describing other changes:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
<filename>run-postinsts</filename>: Make this generic.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>base-files</filename>: Remove the unnecessary
<filename>media/</filename><replaceable>xxx</replaceable> directories.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>alsa-state</filename>: Provide an empty
<filename>asound.conf</filename> by default.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>classes/image</filename>: Ensure
<link linkend='var-BAD_RECOMMENDATIONS'><filename>BAD_RECOMMENDATIONS</filename></link>
supports pre-renamed package names.</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>classes/rootfs_rpm</filename>: Implement
<filename>BAD_RECOMMENDATIONS</filename> for RPM.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>systemd</filename>: Remove
<filename>systemd_unitdir</filename> if
<filename>systemd</filename> is not in
<link linkend='var-DISTRO_FEATURES'><filename>DISTRO_FEATURES</filename></link>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>systemd</filename>: Remove
<filename>init.d</filename> dir if
<filename>systemd</filename> unit file is present and
<filename>sysvinit</filename> is not a distro feature.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>libpam</filename>: Deny all services for the
<filename>OTHER</filename> entries.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>image.bbclass</filename>: Move
<filename>runtime_mapping_rename</filename> to avoid
conflict with <filename>multilib</filename>.
See
<ulink url='https://bugzilla.yoctoproject.org/show_bug.cgi?id=4993'><filename>YOCTO #4993</filename></ulink>
in Bugzilla for more information.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>linux-dtb</filename>: Use kernel build system
to generate the <filename>dtb</filename> files.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>kern-tools</filename>: Switch from guilt to
new <filename>kgit-s2q</filename> tool.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='moving-to-the-yocto-project-1.6-release'>
<title>Moving to the Yocto Project 1.6 Release</title>
<para>
This section provides migration information for moving to the
Yocto Project 1.6 Release from the prior release.
</para>
<section id='migration-1.6-archiver-class'>
<title><filename>archiver</filename> Class</title>
<para>
The
<link linkend='ref-classes-archiver'><filename>archiver</filename></link>
class has been rewritten and its configuration has been simplified.
For more details on the source archiver, see the
"<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#maintaining-open-source-license-compliance-during-your-products-lifecycle'>Maintaining Open Source License Compliance During Your Product's Lifecycle</ulink>"
section in the Yocto Project Development Tasks Manual.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-packaging-changes'>
<title>Packaging Changes</title>
<para>
The following packaging changes have been made:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>binutils</filename> recipe no longer produces
a <filename>binutils-symlinks</filename> package.
<filename>update-alternatives</filename> is now used to
handle the preferred <filename>binutils</filename>
variant on the target instead.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The tc (traffic control) utilities have been split out of
the main <filename>iproute2</filename> package and put
into the <filename>iproute2-tc</filename> package.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>gtk-engines</filename> schemas have been
moved to a dedicated
<filename>gtk-engines-schemas</filename> package.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>armv7a</filename> with thumb package
architecture suffix has changed.
The suffix for these packages with the thumb
optimization enabled is "t2" as it should be.
Use of this suffix was not the case in the 1.5 release.
Architecture names will change within package feeds as a
result.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-bitbake'>
<title>BitBake</title>
<para>
The following changes have been made to
<link linkend='bitbake-term'>BitBake</link>.
</para>
<section id='migration-1.6-matching-branch-requirement-for-git-fetching'>
<title>Matching Branch Requirement for Git Fetching</title>
<para>
When fetching source from a Git repository using
<link linkend='var-SRC_URI'><filename>SRC_URI</filename></link>,
BitBake will now validate the
<link linkend='var-SRCREV'><filename>SRCREV</filename></link>
value against the branch.
You can specify the branch using the following form:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
SRC_URI = "git://server.name/repository;branch=<replaceable>branchname</replaceable>"
</literallayout>
If you do not specify a branch, BitBake looks
in the default "master" branch.
</para>
<para>
Alternatively, if you need to bypass this check (e.g.
if you are fetching a revision corresponding to a tag that
is not on any branch), you can add ";nobranch=1" to
the end of the URL within <filename>SRC_URI</filename>.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-bitbake-deps'>
<title>Python Definition substitutions</title>
<para>
BitBake had some previously deprecated Python definitions
within its <filename>bb</filename> module removed.
You should use their sub-module counterparts instead:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><filename>bb.MalformedUrl</filename>:
Use <filename>bb.fetch.MalformedUrl</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>bb.encodeurl</filename>:
Use <filename>bb.fetch.encodeurl</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>bb.decodeurl</filename>:
Use <filename>bb.fetch.decodeurl</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>bb.mkdirhier</filename>:
Use <filename>bb.utils.mkdirhier</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>bb.movefile</filename>:
Use <filename>bb.utils.movefile</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>bb.copyfile</filename>:
Use <filename>bb.utils.copyfile</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>bb.which</filename>:
Use <filename>bb.utils.which</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>bb.vercmp_string</filename>:
Use <filename>bb.utils.vercmp_string</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>bb.vercmp</filename>:
Use <filename>bb.utils.vercmp</filename>.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-bitbake-fetcher'>
<title>SVK Fetcher</title>
<para>
The SVK fetcher has been removed from BitBake.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-bitbake-console-output'>
<title>Console Output Error Redirection</title>
<para>
The BitBake console UI will now output errors to
<filename>stderr</filename> instead of
<filename>stdout</filename>.
Consequently, if you are piping or redirecting the output of
<filename>bitbake</filename> to somewhere else, and you wish
to retain the errors, you will need to add
<filename>2>&amp;1</filename> (or something similar) to the
end of your <filename>bitbake</filename> command line.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-task-taskname-overrides'>
<title><filename>task-</filename><replaceable>taskname</replaceable> Overrides</title>
<para>
<filename>task-</filename><replaceable>taskname</replaceable> overrides have been
adjusted so that tasks whose names contain underscores have the
underscores replaced by hyphens for the override so that they
now function properly.
For example, the task override for
<link linkend='ref-tasks-populate_sdk'><filename>do_populate_sdk</filename></link>
is <filename>task-populate-sdk</filename>.
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-variable-changes'>
<title>Changes to Variables</title>
<para>
The following variables have changed.
For information on the OpenEmbedded build system variables, see the
"<link linkend='ref-variables-glos'>Variables Glossary</link>" Chapter.
</para>
<section id='migration-1.6-variable-changes-TMPDIR'>
<title><filename>TMPDIR</filename></title>
<para>
<link linkend='var-TMPDIR'><filename>TMPDIR</filename></link>
can no longer be on an NFS mount.
NFS does not offer full POSIX locking and inode consistency
and can cause unexpected issues if used to store
<filename>TMPDIR</filename>.
</para>
<para>
The check for this occurs on startup.
If <filename>TMPDIR</filename> is detected on an NFS mount,
an error occurs.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-variable-changes-PRINC'>
<title><filename>PRINC</filename></title>
<para>
The <filename>PRINC</filename>
variable has been deprecated and triggers a warning if
detected during a build.
For
<link linkend='var-PR'><filename>PR</filename></link>
increments on changes, use the PR service instead.
You can find out more about this service in the
"<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#working-with-a-pr-service'>Working With a PR Service</ulink>"
section in the Yocto Project Development Tasks Manual.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-variable-changes-IMAGE_TYPES'>
<title><filename>IMAGE_TYPES</filename></title>
<para>
The "sum.jffs2" option for
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_TYPES'><filename>IMAGE_TYPES</filename></link>
has been replaced by the "jffs2.sum" option, which fits the
processing order.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-variable-changes-COPY_LIC_MANIFEST'>
<title><filename>COPY_LIC_MANIFEST</filename></title>
<para>
The
<link linkend='var-COPY_LIC_MANIFEST'><filename>COPY_LIC_MANIFEST</filename></link>
variable must
now be set to "1" rather than any value in order to enable
it.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-variable-changes-COPY_LIC_DIRS'>
<title><filename>COPY_LIC_DIRS</filename></title>
<para>
The
<link linkend='var-COPY_LIC_DIRS'><filename>COPY_LIC_DIRS</filename></link>
variable must
now be set to "1" rather than any value in order to enable
it.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-variable-changes-PACKAGE_GROUP'>
<title><filename>PACKAGE_GROUP</filename></title>
<para>
The
<filename>PACKAGE_GROUP</filename> variable has been renamed to
<link linkend='var-FEATURE_PACKAGES'><filename>FEATURE_PACKAGES</filename></link>
to more accurately reflect its purpose.
You can still use <filename>PACKAGE_GROUP</filename> but
the OpenEmbedded build system produces a warning message when
it encounters the variable.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-variable-changes-variable-entry-behavior'>
<title>Preprocess and Post Process Command Variable Behavior</title>
<para>
The following variables now expect a semicolon separated
list of functions to call and not arbitrary shell commands:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
<link linkend='var-ROOTFS_PREPROCESS_COMMAND'>ROOTFS_PREPROCESS_COMMAND</link>
<link linkend='var-ROOTFS_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND'>ROOTFS_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND</link>
<link linkend='var-SDK_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND'>SDK_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND</link>
<link linkend='var-POPULATE_SDK_POST_TARGET_COMMAND'>POPULATE_SDK_POST_TARGET_COMMAND</link>
<link linkend='var-POPULATE_SDK_POST_HOST_COMMAND'>POPULATE_SDK_POST_HOST_COMMAND</link>
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND'>IMAGE_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND</link>
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_PREPROCESS_COMMAND'>IMAGE_PREPROCESS_COMMAND</link>
<link linkend='var-ROOTFS_POSTUNINSTALL_COMMAND'>ROOTFS_POSTUNINSTALL_COMMAND</link>
<link linkend='var-ROOTFS_POSTINSTALL_COMMAND'>ROOTFS_POSTINSTALL_COMMAND</link>
</literallayout>
For migration purposes, you can simply wrap shell commands in
a shell function and then call the function.
Here is an example:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
my_postprocess_function() {
echo "hello" > ${IMAGE_ROOTFS}/hello.txt
}
ROOTFS_POSTPROCESS_COMMAND += "my_postprocess_function; "
</literallayout>
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-package-test-ptest'>
<title>Package Test (ptest)</title>
<para>
Package Tests (ptest) are built but not installed by default.
For information on using Package Tests, see the
"<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#testing-packages-with-ptest'>Testing Packages with ptest</ulink>"
section in the Yocto Project Development Tasks Manual.
For information on the <filename>ptest</filename> class, see the
"<link linkend='ref-classes-ptest'><filename>ptest.bbclass</filename></link>"
section.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-build-changes'>
<title>Build Changes</title>
<para>
Separate build and source directories have been enabled
by default for selected recipes where it is known to work
(a whitelist) and for all recipes that inherit the
<link linkend='ref-classes-cmake'><filename>cmake</filename></link>
class.
In future releases the
<link linkend='ref-classes-autotools'><filename>autotools</filename></link>
class will enable a separate build directory by default as
well.
Recipes building Autotools-based
software that fails to build with a separate build directory
should be changed to inherit from the
<link linkend='ref-classes-autotools'><filename>autotools-brokensep</filename></link>
class instead of the <filename>autotools</filename> or
<filename>autotools_stage</filename>classes.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-building-qemu-native'>
<title><filename>qemu-native</filename></title>
<para>
<filename>qemu-native</filename> now builds without
SDL-based graphical output support by default.
The following additional lines are needed in your
<filename>local.conf</filename> to enable it:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
PACKAGECONFIG_pn-qemu-native = "sdl"
ASSUME_PROVIDED += "libsdl-native"
</literallayout>
<note>
The default <filename>local.conf</filename>
contains these statements.
Consequently, if you are building a headless system and using
a default <filename>local.conf</filename> file, you will need
comment these two lines out.
</note>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-core-image-basic'>
<title><filename>core-image-basic</filename></title>
<para>
<filename>core-image-basic</filename> has been renamed to
<filename>core-image-full-cmdline</filename>.
</para>
<para>
In addition to <filename>core-image-basic</filename> being renamed,
<filename>packagegroup-core-basic</filename> has been renamed to
<filename>packagegroup-core-full-cmdline</filename> to match.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-licensing'>
<title>Licensing</title>
<para>
The top-level <filename>LICENSE</filename> file has been changed
to better describe the license of the various components of
<link linkend='oe-core'>OE-Core</link>.
However, the licensing itself remains unchanged.
</para>
<para>
Normally, this change would not cause any side-effects.
However, some recipes point to this file within
<link linkend='var-LIC_FILES_CHKSUM'><filename>LIC_FILES_CHKSUM</filename></link>
(as <filename>${COREBASE}/LICENSE</filename>) and thus the
accompanying checksum must be changed from
3f40d7994397109285ec7b81fdeb3b58 to
4d92cd373abda3937c2bc47fbc49d690.
A better alternative is to have
<filename>LIC_FILES_CHKSUM</filename> point to a file
describing the license that is distributed with the source
that the recipe is building, if possible, rather than pointing
to <filename>${COREBASE}/LICENSE</filename>.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-cflags-options'>
<title><filename>CFLAGS</filename> Options</title>
<para>
The "-fpermissive" option has been removed from the default
<link linkend='var-CFLAGS'><filename>CFLAGS</filename></link>
value.
You need to take action on individual recipes that fail when
building with this option.
You need to either patch the recipes to fix the issues reported by
the compiler, or you need to add "-fpermissive" to
<filename>CFLAGS</filename> in the recipes.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-custom-images'>
<title>Custom Image Output Types</title>
<para>
Custom image output types, as selected using
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_FSTYPES'><filename>IMAGE_FSTYPES</filename></link>,
must declare their dependencies on other image types (if any) using
a new
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_TYPEDEP'><filename>IMAGE_TYPEDEP</filename></link>
variable.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-do-package-write-task'>
<title>Tasks</title>
<para>
The <filename>do_package_write</filename> task has been removed.
The task is no longer needed.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-update-alternatives-provider'>
<title><filename>update-alternative</filename> Provider</title>
<para>
The default <filename>update-alternatives</filename> provider has
been changed from <filename>opkg</filename> to
<filename>opkg-utils</filename>.
This change resolves some troublesome circular dependencies.
The runtime package has also been renamed from
<filename>update-alternatives-cworth</filename>
to <filename>update-alternatives-opkg</filename>.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-virtclass-overrides'>
<title><filename>virtclass</filename> Overrides</title>
<para>
The <filename>virtclass</filename> overrides are now deprecated.
Use the equivalent class overrides instead (e.g.
<filename>virtclass-native</filename> becomes
<filename>class-native</filename>.)
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-removed-renamed-recipes'>
<title>Removed and Renamed Recipes</title>
<para>
The following recipes have been removed:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><filename>packagegroup-toolset-native</filename> -
This recipe is largely unused.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>linux-yocto-3.8</filename> -
Support for the Linux yocto 3.8 kernel has been dropped.
Support for the 3.10 and 3.14 kernels have been added
with the <filename>linux-yocto-3.10</filename> and
<filename>linux-yocto-3.14</filename> recipes.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>ocf-linux</filename> -
This recipe has been functionally replaced using
<filename>cryptodev-linux</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>genext2fs</filename> -
<filename>genext2fs</filename> is no longer used by the
build system and is unmaintained upstream.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>js</filename> -
This provided an ancient version of Mozilla's javascript
engine that is no longer needed.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>zaurusd</filename> -
The recipe has been moved to the
<filename>meta-handheld</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>eglibc 2.17</filename> -
Replaced by the <filename>eglibc 2.19</filename>
recipe.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>gcc 4.7.2</filename> -
Replaced by the now stable
<filename>gcc 4.8.2</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>external-sourcery-toolchain</filename> -
this recipe is now maintained in the
<filename>meta-sourcery</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>linux-libc-headers-yocto 3.4+git</filename> -
Now using version 3.10 of the
<filename>linux-libc-headers</filename> by default.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>meta-toolchain-gmae</filename> -
This recipe is obsolete.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>packagegroup-core-sdk-gmae</filename> -
This recipe is obsolete.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>packagegroup-core-standalone-gmae-sdk-target</filename> -
This recipe is obsolete.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-removed-classes'>
<title>Removed Classes</title>
<para>
The following classes have become obsolete and have been removed:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><filename>module_strip</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>pkg_metainfo</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>pkg_distribute</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>image-empty</filename>
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.6-reference-bsps'>
<title>Reference Board Support Packages (BSPs)</title>
<para>
The following reference BSPs changes occurred:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>The BeagleBoard
(<filename>beagleboard</filename>) ARM reference hardware
has been replaced by the BeagleBone
(<filename>beaglebone</filename>) hardware.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>The RouterStation Pro
(<filename>routerstationpro</filename>) MIPS reference
hardware has been replaced by the EdgeRouter Lite
(<filename>edgerouter</filename>) hardware.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
The previous reference BSPs for the
<filename>beagleboard</filename> and
<filename>routerstationpro</filename> machines are still available
in a new <filename>meta-yocto-bsp-old</filename> layer in the
<ulink url='&YOCTO_GIT_URL;'>Source Repositories</ulink>
at
<ulink url='http://git.yoctoproject.org/cgit/cgit.cgi/meta-yocto-bsp-old/'>http://git.yoctoproject.org/cgit/cgit.cgi/meta-yocto-bsp-old/</ulink>.
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='moving-to-the-yocto-project-1.7-release'>
<title>Moving to the Yocto Project 1.7 Release</title>
<para>
This section provides migration information for moving to the
Yocto Project 1.7 Release from the prior release.
</para>
<section id='migration-1.7-changes-to-setting-qemu-packageconfig-options'>
<title>Changes to Setting QEMU <filename>PACKAGECONFIG</filename> Options in <filename>local.conf</filename></title>
<para>
The QEMU recipe now uses a number of
<link linkend='var-PACKAGECONFIG'><filename>PACKAGECONFIG</filename></link>
options to enable various optional features.
The method used to set defaults for these options means that
existing
<filename>local.conf</filename> files will need to be be
modified to append to <filename>PACKAGECONFIG</filename> for
<filename>qemu-native</filename> and
<filename>nativesdk-qemu</filename> instead of setting it.
In other words, to enable graphical output for QEMU, you should
now have these lines in <filename>local.conf</filename>:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
PACKAGECONFIG_append_pn-qemu-native = " sdl"
PACKAGECONFIG_append_pn-nativesdk-qemu = " sdl"
</literallayout>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.7-minimum-git-version'>
<title>Minimum Git version</title>
<para>
The minimum
<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_OM_URL;#git'>Git</ulink> version
required on the build host is now 1.7.8 because the
<filename>--list</filename> option is now required by
BitBake's Git fetcher.
As always, if your host distribution does not provide a version of
Git that meets this requirement, you can use the
<filename>buildtools-tarball</filename> that does.
See the
"<link linkend='required-git-tar-python-and-gcc-versions'>Required Git, tar, Python and gcc Versions</link>"
section for more information.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.7-autotools-class-changes'>
<title>Autotools Class Changes</title>
<para>
The following
<link linkend='ref-classes-autotools'><filename>autotools</filename></link>
class changes occurred:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><emphasis>
A separate build directory is now used by default:</emphasis>
The <filename>autotools</filename> class has been changed
to use a directory for building
(<link linkend='var-B'><filename>B</filename></link>),
which is separate from the source directory
(<link linkend='var-S'><filename>S</filename></link>).
This is commonly referred to as
<filename>B != S</filename>, or an out-of-tree build.</para>
<para>If the software being built is already capable of
building in a directory separate from the source, you
do not need to do anything.
However, if the software is not capable of being built
in this manner, you will
need to either patch the software so that it can build
separately, or you will need to change the recipe to
inherit the
<link linkend='ref-classes-autotools'><filename>autotools-brokensep</filename></link>
class instead of the <filename>autotools</filename> or
<filename>autotools_stage</filename> classes.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis>
The <filename>--foreign</filename> option is
no longer passed to <filename>automake</filename> when
running <filename>autoconf</filename>:</emphasis>
This option tells <filename>automake</filename> that a
particular software package does not follow the GNU
standards and therefore should not be expected
to distribute certain files such as
<filename>ChangeLog</filename>,
<filename>AUTHORS</filename>, and so forth.
Because the majority of upstream software packages already
tell <filename>automake</filename> to enable foreign mode
themselves, the option is mostly superfluous.
However, some recipes will need patches for this change.
You can easily make the change by patching
<filename>configure.ac</filename> so that it passes
"foreign" to <filename>AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE()</filename>.
See
<ulink url='http://cgit.openembedded.org/openembedded-core/commit/?id=01943188f85ce6411717fb5bf702d609f55813f2'>this commit</ulink>
for an example showing how to make the patch.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.7-binary-configuration-scripts-disabled'>
<title>Binary Configuration Scripts Disabled</title>
<para>
Some of the core recipes that package binary configuration scripts
now disable the scripts due to the
scripts previously requiring error-prone path substitution.
Software that links against these libraries using these scripts
should use the much more robust <filename>pkg-config</filename>
instead.
The list of recipes changed in this version (and their
configuration scripts) is as follows:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
directfb (directfb-config)
freetype (freetype-config)
gpgme (gpgme-config)
libassuan (libassuan-config)
libcroco (croco-6.0-config)
libgcrypt (libgcrypt-config)
libgpg-error (gpg-error-config)
libksba (ksba-config)
libpcap (pcap-config)
libpcre (pcre-config)
libpng (libpng-config, libpng16-config)
libsdl (sdl-config)
libusb-compat (libusb-config)
libxml2 (xml2-config)
libxslt (xslt-config)
ncurses (ncurses-config)
neon (neon-config)
npth (npth-config)
pth (pth-config)
taglib (taglib-config)
</literallayout>
Additionally, support for <filename>pkg-config</filename> has been
added to some recipes in the previous list in the rare cases
where the upstream software package does not already provide
it.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.7-glibc-replaces-eglibc'>
<title><filename>eglibc 2.19</filename> Replaced with <filename>glibc 2.20</filename></title>
<para>
Because <filename>eglibc</filename> and
<filename>glibc</filename> were already fairly close, this
replacement should not require any significant changes to other
software that links to <filename>eglibc</filename>.
However, there were a number of minor changes in
<filename>glibc 2.20</filename> upstream that could require
patching some software (e.g. the removal of the
<filename>_BSD_SOURCE</filename> feature test macro).
</para>
<para>
<filename>glibc 2.20</filename> requires version 2.6.32 or greater
of the Linux kernel.
Thus, older kernels will no longer be usable in conjunction with it.
</para>
<para>
For full details on the changes in <filename>glibc 2.20</filename>,
see the upstream release notes
<ulink url='https://sourceware.org/ml/libc-alpha/2014-09/msg00088.html'>here</ulink>.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.7-kernel-module-autoloading'>
<title>Kernel Module Autoloading</title>
<para>
The
<link linkend='var-module_autoload'><filename>module_autoload_*</filename></link>
variable is now deprecated and a new
<link linkend='var-KERNEL_MODULE_AUTOLOAD'><filename>KERNEL_MODULE_AUTOLOAD</filename></link>
variable should be used instead.
Also,
<link linkend='var-module_conf'><filename>module_conf_*</filename></link>
must now be used in conjunction with a new
<link linkend='var-KERNEL_MODULE_PROBECONF'><filename>KERNEL_MODULE_PROBECONF</filename></link>
variable.
The new variables no longer require you to specify the module name
as part of the variable name.
This change not only simplifies usage but also allows the values
of these variables to be appropriately incorporated into task
signatures and thus trigger the appropriate tasks to re-execute
when changed.
You should replace any references to
<filename>module_autoload_*</filename> with
<filename>KERNEL_MODULE_AUTOLOAD</filename>, and add any modules
for which <filename>module_conf_*</filename> is specified to
<filename>KERNEL_MODULE_PROBECONF</filename>.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.7-qa-check-changes'>
<title>QA Check Changes</title>
<para>
The following changes have occurred to the QA check process:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
Additional QA checks <filename>file-rdeps</filename>
and <filename>build-deps</filename> have been added in
order to verify that file dependencies are satisfied
(e.g. package contains a script requiring
<filename>/bin/bash</filename>) and build-time dependencies
are declared, respectively.
For more information, please see the
"<link linkend='ref-qa-checks'>QA Error and Warning Messages</link>"
chapter.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
Package QA checks are now performed during a new
<link linkend='ref-tasks-package_qa'><filename>do_package_qa</filename></link>
task rather than being part of the
<link linkend='ref-tasks-package'><filename>do_package</filename></link>
task.
This allows more parallel execution.
This change is unlikely to be an issue except for highly
customized recipes that disable packaging tasks themselves
by marking them as <filename>noexec</filename>.
For those packages, you will need to disable the
<filename>do_package_qa</filename> task as well.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
Files being overwritten during the
<link linkend='ref-tasks-populate_sysroot'><filename>do_populate_sysroot</filename></link>
task now trigger an error instead of a warning.
Recipes should not be overwriting files written to the
sysroot by other recipes.
If you have these types of recipes, you need to alter them
so that they do not overwrite these files.</para>
<para>You might now receive this error after changes in
configuration or metadata resulting in orphaned files
being left in the sysroot.
If you do receive this error, the way to resolve the issue
is to delete your
<link linkend='var-TMPDIR'><filename>TMPDIR</filename></link>
or to move it out of the way and then re-start the build.
Anything that has been fully built up to that point and
does not need rebuilding will be restored from the shared
state cache and the rest of the build will be able to
proceed as normal.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.7-removed-recipes'>
<title>Removed Recipes</title>
<para>
The following recipes have been removed:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
<filename>x-load</filename>:
This recipe has been superseded by
U-boot SPL for all Cortex-based TI SoCs.
For legacy boards, the <filename>meta-ti</filename>
layer, which contains a maintained recipe, should be used
instead.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>ubootchart</filename>:
This recipe is obsolete.
A <filename>bootchart2</filename> recipe has been added
to functionally replace it.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>linux-yocto 3.4</filename>:
Support for the linux-yocto 3.4 kernel has been dropped.
Support for the 3.10 and 3.14 kernels remains, while
support for version 3.17 has been added.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>eglibc</filename> has been removed in favor of
<filename>glibc</filename>.
See the
"<link linkend='migration-1.7-glibc-replaces-eglibc'><filename>eglibc 2.19</filename> Replaced with <filename>glibc 2.20</filename></link>"
section for more information.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.7-miscellaneous-changes'>
<title>Miscellaneous Changes</title>
<para>
The following miscellaneous change occurred:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
The build history feature now writes
<filename>build-id.txt</filename> instead of
<filename>build-id</filename>.
Additionally, <filename>build-id.txt</filename>
now contains the full build header as printed by
BitBake upon starting the build.
You should manually remove old "build-id" files from your
existing build history repositories to avoid confusion.
For information on the build history feature, see the
"<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#maintaining-build-output-quality'>Maintaining Build Output Quality</ulink>"
section in the Yocto Project Development Tasks Manual.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='moving-to-the-yocto-project-1.8-release'>
<title>Moving to the Yocto Project 1.8 Release</title>
<para>
This section provides migration information for moving to the
Yocto Project 1.8 Release from the prior release.
</para>
<section id='migration-1.8-removed-recipes'>
<title>Removed Recipes</title>
<para>
The following recipes have been removed:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><filename>owl-video</filename>:
Functionality replaced by <filename>gst-player</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>gaku</filename>:
Functionality replaced by <filename>gst-player</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>gnome-desktop</filename>:
This recipe is now available in
<filename>meta-gnome</filename> and is no longer needed.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>gsettings-desktop-schemas</filename>:
This recipe is now available in
<filename>meta-gnome</filename> and is no longer needed.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>python-argparse</filename>:
The <filename>argparse</filename> module is already
provided in the default Python distribution in a
package named <filename>python-argparse</filename>.
Consequently, the separate
<filename>python-argparse</filename> recipe is no
longer needed.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>telepathy-python, libtelepathy, telepathy-glib, telepathy-idle, telepathy-mission-control</filename>:
All these recipes have moved to
<filename>meta-oe</filename> and are consequently no
longer needed by any recipes in OpenEmbedded-Core.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>linux-yocto_3.10</filename> and <filename>linux-yocto_3.17</filename>:
Support for the linux-yocto 3.10 and 3.17 kernels has been
dropped.
Support for the 3.14 kernel remains, while support for
3.19 kernel has been added.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>poky-feed-config-opkg</filename>:
This recipe has become obsolete and is no longer needed.
Use <filename>distro-feed-config</filename> from
<filename>meta-oe</filename> instead.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>libav 0.8.x</filename>:
<filename>libav 9.x</filename> is now used.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>sed-native</filename>:
No longer needed.
A working version of <filename>sed</filename> is expected
to be provided by the host distribution.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.8-bluez'>
<title>BlueZ 4.x / 5.x Selection</title>
<para>
Proper built-in support for selecting BlueZ 5.x in preference
to the default of 4.x now exists.
To use BlueZ 5.x, simply add "bluez5" to your
<link linkend='var-DISTRO_FEATURES'><filename>DISTRO_FEATURES</filename></link>
value.
If you had previously added append files
(<filename>*.bbappend</filename>) to make this selection, you can
now remove them.
</para>
<para>
Additionally, a <filename>bluetooth</filename> class has been added
to make selection of the appropriate bluetooth support within a
recipe a little easier.
If you wish to make use of this class in a recipe, add something
such as the following:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
inherit bluetooth
PACKAGECONFIG ??= "${@bb.utils.contains('DISTRO_FEATURES', 'bluetooth', '${BLUEZ}', '', d)}"
PACKAGECONFIG[bluez4] = "--enable-bluetooth,--disable-bluetooth,bluez4"
PACKAGECONFIG[bluez5] = "--enable-bluez5,--disable-bluez5,bluez5"
</literallayout>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.8-kernel-build-changes'>
<title>Kernel Build Changes</title>
<para>
The kernel build process was changed to place the source
in a common shared work area and to place build artifacts
separately in the source code tree.
In theory, migration paths have been provided for most common
usages in kernel recipes but this might not work in all cases.
In particular, users need to ensure that
<filename>${S}</filename> (source files) and
<filename>${B}</filename> (build artifacts) are used
correctly in functions such as
<link linkend='ref-tasks-configure'><filename>do_configure</filename></link>
and
<link linkend='ref-tasks-install'><filename>do_install</filename></link>.
For kernel recipes that do not inherit from
<filename>kernel-yocto</filename> or include
<filename>linux-yocto.inc</filename>, you might wish to
refer to the <filename>linux.inc</filename> file in the
<filename>meta-oe</filename> layer for the kinds of changes you
need to make.
For reference, here is the
<ulink url='http://cgit.openembedded.org/meta-openembedded/commit/meta-oe/recipes-kernel/linux/linux.inc?id=fc7132ede27ac67669448d3d2845ce7d46c6a1ee'>commit</ulink>
where the <filename>linux.inc</filename> file in
<filename>meta-oe</filename> was updated.
</para>
<para>
Recipes that rely on the kernel source code and do not inherit
the module classes might need to add explicit dependencies on
the <filename>do_shared_workdir</filename> kernel task, for example:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
do_configure[depends] += "virtual/kernel:do_shared_workdir"
</literallayout>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.8-ssl'>
<title>SSL 3.0 is Now Disabled in OpenSSL</title>
<para>
SSL 3.0 is now disabled when building OpenSSL.
Disabling SSL 3.0 avoids any lingering instances of the POODLE
vulnerability.
If you feel you must re-enable SSL 3.0, then you can add an
append file (<filename>*.bbappend</filename>) for the
<filename>openssl</filename> recipe to remove "-no-ssl3"
from
<link linkend='var-EXTRA_OECONF'><filename>EXTRA_OECONF</filename></link>.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.8-default-sysroot-poisoning'>
<title>Default Sysroot Poisoning</title>
<para>
<filename>gcc's</filename> default sysroot and include directories
are now "poisoned".
In other words, the sysroot and include directories are being
redirected to a non-existent location in order to catch when
host directories are being used due to the correct options not
being passed.
This poisoning applies both to the cross-compiler used within the
build and to the cross-compiler produced in the SDK.
</para>
<para>
If this change causes something in the build to fail, it almost
certainly means the various compiler flags and commands are not
being passed correctly to the underlying piece of software.
In such cases, you need to take corrective steps.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.8-rebuild-improvements'>
<title>Rebuild Improvements</title>
<para>
Changes have been made to the
<link linkend='ref-classes-base'><filename>base</filename></link>,
<link linkend='ref-classes-autotools'><filename>autotools</filename></link>,
and
<link linkend='ref-classes-cmake'><filename>cmake</filename></link>
classes to clean out generated files when the
<link linkend='ref-tasks-configure'><filename>do_configure</filename></link>
task needs to be re-executed.
</para>
<para>
One of the improvements is to attempt to run "make clean" during
the <filename>do_configure</filename> task if a
<filename>Makefile</filename> exists.
Some software packages do not provide a working clean target
within their make files.
If you have such recipes, you need to set
<link linkend='var-CLEANBROKEN'><filename>CLEANBROKEN</filename></link>
to "1" within the recipe, for example:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
CLEANBROKEN = "1"
</literallayout>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.8-qa-check-and-validation-changes'>
<title>QA Check and Validation Changes</title>
<para>
The following QA Check and Validation Changes have occurred:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
Usage of <filename>PRINC</filename>
previously triggered a warning.
It now triggers an error.
You should remove any remaining usage of
<filename>PRINC</filename> in any recipe or append file.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
An additional QA check has been added to detect usage of
<filename>${D}</filename> in
<link linkend='var-FILES'><filename>FILES</filename></link>
values where
<link linkend='var-D'><filename>D</filename></link> values
should not be used at all.
The same check ensures that <filename>$D</filename> is used
in
<filename>pkg_preinst/pkg_postinst/pkg_prerm/pkg_postrm</filename>
functions instead of <filename>${D}</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<link linkend='var-S'><filename>S</filename></link> now
needs to be set to a valid value within a recipe.
If <filename>S</filename> is not set in the recipe, the
directory is not automatically created.
If <filename>S</filename> does not point to a directory
that exists at the time the
<link linkend='ref-tasks-unpack'><filename>do_unpack</filename></link>
task finishes, a warning will be shown.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<link linkend='var-LICENSE'><filename>LICENSE</filename></link>
is now validated for correct formatting of multiple
licenses.
If the format is invalid (e.g. multiple licenses are
specified with no operators to specify how the multiple
licenses interact), then a warning will be shown.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-1.8-miscellaneous-changes'>
<title>Miscellaneous Changes</title>
<para>
The following miscellaneous changes have occurred:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>send-error-report</filename> script now
expects a "-s" option to be specified before the server
address.
This assumes a server address is being specified.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>oe-pkgdata-util</filename> script now
expects a "-p" option to be specified before the
<filename>pkgdata</filename> directory, which is now
optional.
If the <filename>pkgdata</filename> directory is not
specified, the script will run BitBake to query
<link linkend='var-PKGDATA_DIR'><filename>PKGDATA_DIR</filename></link>
from the build environment.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='moving-to-the-yocto-project-2.0-release'>
<title>Moving to the Yocto Project 2.0 Release</title>
<para>
This section provides migration information for moving to the
Yocto Project 2.0 Release from the prior release.
</para>
<section id='migration-2.0-gcc-5'>
<title>GCC 5</title>
<para>
The default compiler is now GCC 5.2.
This change has required fixes for compilation errors in a number
of other recipes.
</para>
<para>
One important example is a fix for when the Linux kernel freezes at
boot time on ARM when built with GCC 5.
If you are using your own kernel recipe or source tree and
building for ARM, you will likely need to apply this
<ulink url='https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/commit?id=a077224fd35b2f7fbc93f14cf67074fc792fbac2'>patch</ulink>.
The standard <filename>linux-yocto</filename> kernel source tree
already has a workaround for the same issue.
</para>
<para>
For further details, see
<ulink url='https://gcc.gnu.org/gcc-5/changes.html'></ulink> and
the porting guide at
<ulink url='https://gcc.gnu.org/gcc-5/porting_to.html'></ulink>.
</para>
<para>
Alternatively, you can switch back to GCC 4.9 or 4.8 by
setting <filename>GCCVERSION</filename> in your configuration,
as follows:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
GCCVERSION = "4.9%"
</literallayout>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.0-Gstreamer-0.10-removed'>
<title>Gstreamer 0.10 Removed</title>
<para>
Gstreamer 0.10 has been removed in favor of Gstreamer 1.x.
As part of the change, recipes for Gstreamer 0.10 and related
software are now located
in <filename>meta-multimedia</filename>.
This change results in Qt4 having Phonon and Gstreamer
support in QtWebkit disabled by default.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.0-removed-recipes'>
<title>Removed Recipes</title>
<para>
The following recipes have been moved or removed:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
<filename>bluez4</filename>: The recipe is obsolete and
has been moved due to <filename>bluez5</filename>
becoming fully integrated.
The <filename>bluez4</filename> recipe now resides in
<filename>meta-oe</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>gamin</filename>: The recipe is obsolete and
has been removed.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>gnome-icon-theme</filename>: The recipe's
functionally has been replaced by
<filename>adwaita-icon-theme</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
Gstreamer 0.10 Recipes: Recipes for Gstreamer 0.10 have
been removed in favor of the recipes for Gstreamer 1.x.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>insserv</filename>: The recipe is obsolete and
has been removed.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>libunique</filename>: The recipe is no longer
used and has been moved to <filename>meta-oe</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>midori</filename>: The recipe's functionally
has been replaced by <filename>epiphany</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>python-gst</filename>: The recipe is obsolete
and has been removed since it only contains bindings for
Gstreamer 0.10.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>qt-mobility</filename>: The recipe is obsolete and
has been removed since it requires
<filename>Gstreamer 0.10</filename>, which has been
replaced.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>subversion</filename>: All 1.6.x versions of this
recipe have been removed.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>webkit-gtk</filename>: The older 1.8.3 version
of this recipe has been removed in favor of
<filename>webkitgtk</filename>.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.0-bitbake-datastore-improvements'>
<title>BitBake datastore improvements</title>
<para>
The method by which BitBake's datastore handles overrides has
changed.
Overrides are now applied dynamically and
<filename>bb.data.update_data()</filename> is now a no-op.
Thus, <filename>bb.data.update_data()</filename> is no longer
required in order to apply the correct overrides.
In practice, this change is unlikely to require any changes to
Metadata.
However, these minor changes in behavior exist:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
All potential overrides are now visible in the variable
history as seen when you run the following:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
$ bitbake -e
</literallayout>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>d.delVar('</filename><replaceable>VARNAME</replaceable><filename>')</filename> and
<filename>d.setVar('</filename><replaceable>VARNAME</replaceable><filename>', None)</filename>
result in the variable and all of its overrides being
cleared out.
Before the change, only the non-overridden values
were cleared.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.0-shell-message-function-changes'>
<title>Shell Message Function Changes</title>
<para>
The shell versions of the BitBake message functions (i.e.
<filename>bbdebug</filename>, <filename>bbnote</filename>,
<filename>bbwarn</filename>, <filename>bbplain</filename>,
<filename>bberror</filename>, and <filename>bbfatal</filename>)
are now connected through to their BitBake equivalents
<filename>bb.debug()</filename>, <filename>bb.note()</filename>,
<filename>bb.warn()</filename>, <filename>bb.plain()</filename>,
<filename>bb.error()</filename>, and
<filename>bb.fatal()</filename>, respectively.
Thus, those message functions that you would expect to be printed
by the BitBake UI are now actually printed.
In practice, this change means two things:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
If you now see messages on the console that you did not
previously see as a result of this change, you might
need to clean up the calls to
<filename>bbwarn</filename>, <filename>bberror</filename>,
and so forth.
Or, you might want to simply remove the calls.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>bbfatal</filename> message function now
suppresses the full error log in the UI, which means any
calls to <filename>bbfatal</filename> where you still
wish to see the full error log should be replaced by
<filename>die</filename> or
<filename>bbfatal_log</filename>.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.0-extra-development-debug-package-cleanup'>
<title>Extra Development/Debug Package Cleanup</title>
<para>
The following recipes have had extra
<filename>dev/dbg</filename> packages removed:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
<filename>acl</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>apmd</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>aspell</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>attr</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>augeas</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>bzip2</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>cogl</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>curl</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>elfutils</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>gcc-target</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>libgcc</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>libtool</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>libxmu</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>opkg</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>pciutils</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>rpm</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>sysfsutils</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>tiff</filename>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
<filename>xz</filename>
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
All of the above recipes now conform to the standard packaging
scheme where a single <filename>-dev</filename>,
<filename>-dbg</filename>, and <filename>-staticdev</filename>
package exists per recipe.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.0-recipe-maintenance-tracking-data-moved-to-oe-core'>
<title>Recipe Maintenance Tracking Data Moved to OE-Core</title>
<para>
Maintenance tracking data for recipes that was previously part
of <filename>meta-yocto</filename> has been moved to
<link linkend='oe-core'>OE-Core</link>.
The change includes <filename>package_regex.inc</filename> and
<filename>distro_alias.inc</filename>, which are typically enabled
when using the <filename>distrodata</filename> class.
Additionally, the contents of
<filename>upstream_tracking.inc</filename> has now been split out
to the relevant recipes.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.0-automatic-stale-sysroot-file-cleanup'>
<title>Automatic Stale Sysroot File Cleanup</title>
<para>
Stale files from recipes that no longer exist in the current
configuration are now automatically removed from
sysroot as well as removed from
any other place managed by shared state.
This automatic cleanup means that the build system now properly
handles situations such as renaming the build system side of
recipes, removal of layers from
<filename>bblayers.conf</filename>, and
<link linkend='var-DISTRO_FEATURES'><filename>DISTRO_FEATURES</filename></link>
changes.
</para>
<para>
Additionally, work directories for old versions of recipes are
now pruned.
If you wish to disable pruning old work directories, you can set
the following variable in your configuration:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
SSTATE_PRUNE_OBSOLETEWORKDIR = "0"
</literallayout>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.0-linux-yocto-kernel-metadata-repository-now-split-from-source'>
<title><filename>linux-yocto</filename> Kernel Metadata Repository Now Split from Source</title>
<para>
The <filename>linux-yocto</filename> tree has up to now been a
combined set of kernel changes and configuration (meta) data
carried in a single tree.
While this format is effective at keeping kernel configuration and
source modifications synchronized, it is not always obvious to
developers how to manipulate the Metadata as compared to the
source.
</para>
<para>
Metadata processing has now been removed from the
<link linkend='ref-classes-kernel-yocto'><filename>kernel-yocto</filename></link>
class and the external Metadata repository
<filename>yocto-kernel-cache</filename>, which has always been used
to seed the <filename>linux-yocto</filename> "meta" branch.
This separate <filename>linux-yocto</filename> cache repository
is now the primary location for this data.
Due to this change, <filename>linux-yocto</filename> is no longer
able to process combined trees.
Thus, if you need to have your own combined kernel repository,
you must do the split there as well and update your recipes
accordingly.
See the <filename>meta/recipes-kernel/linux/linux-yocto_4.1.bb</filename>
recipe for an example.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.0-additional-qa-checks'>
<title>Additional QA checks</title>
<para>
The following QA checks have been added:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
Added a "host-user-contaminated" check for ownership
issues for packaged files outside of
<filename>/home</filename>.
The check looks for files that are incorrectly owned by the
user that ran BitBake instead of owned by a valid user in
the target system.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
Added an "invalid-chars" check for invalid (non-UTF8)
characters in recipe metadata variable values
(i.e.
<link linkend='var-DESCRIPTION'><filename>DESCRIPTION</filename></link>,
<link linkend='var-SUMMARY'><filename>SUMMARY</filename></link>,
<link linkend='var-LICENSE'><filename>LICENSE</filename></link>,
and
<link linkend='var-SECTION'><filename>SECTION</filename></link>).
Some package managers do not support these characters.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
Added an "invalid-packageconfig" check for any options
specified in
<link linkend='var-PACKAGECONFIG'><filename>PACKAGECONFIG</filename></link>
that do not match any <filename>PACKAGECONFIG</filename>
option defined for the recipe.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.0-miscellaneous'>
<title>Miscellaneous Changes</title>
<para>
These additional changes exist:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
<filename>gtk-update-icon-cache</filename> has been
renamed to <filename>gtk-icon-utils</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>tools-profile</filename>
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_FEATURES'><filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename></link>
item as well as its corresponding packagegroup and
<filename>packagegroup-core-tools-profile</filename> no
longer bring in <filename>oprofile</filename>.
Bringing in <filename>oprofile</filename> was originally
added to aid compilation on resource-constrained
targets.
However, this aid has not been widely used and is not
likely to be used going forward due to the more powerful
target platforms and the existence of better
cross-compilation tools.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_FSTYPES'><filename>IMAGE_FSTYPES</filename></link>
variable's default value now specifies
<filename>ext4</filename> instead of
<filename>ext3</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
All support for the <filename>PRINC</filename>
variable has been removed.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>packagegroup-core-full-cmdline</filename>
packagegroup no longer brings in
<filename>lighttpd</filename> due to the fact that
bringing in <filename>lighttpd</filename> is not really in
line with the packagegroup's purpose, which is to add full
versions of command-line tools that by default are
provided by <filename>busybox</filename>.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='moving-to-the-yocto-project-2.1-release'>
<title>Moving to the Yocto Project 2.1 Release</title>
<para>
This section provides migration information for moving to the
Yocto Project 2.1 Release from the prior release.
</para>
<section id='migration-2.1-variable-expansion-in-python-functions'>
<title>Variable Expansion in Python Functions</title>
<para>
Variable expressions, such as
<filename>${</filename><replaceable>VARNAME</replaceable><filename>}</filename>
no longer expand automatically within Python functions.
Suppressing expansion was done to allow Python functions to
construct shell scripts or other code for situations in which you
do not want such expressions expanded.
For any existing code that relies on these expansions, you need to
change the expansions to expand the value of individual
variables through <filename>d.getVar()</filename>.
To alternatively expand more complex expressions,
use <filename>d.expand()</filename>.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-overrides-must-now-be-lower-case'>
<title>Overrides Must Now be Lower-Case</title>
<para>
The convention for overrides has always been for them to be
lower-case characters.
This practice is now a requirement as BitBake's datastore now
assumes lower-case characters in order to give a slight performance
boost during parsing.
In practical terms, this requirement means that anything that ends
up in
<link linkend='var-OVERRIDES'><filename>OVERRIDES</filename></link>
must now appear in lower-case characters (e.g. values for
<filename>MACHINE</filename>, <filename>TARGET_ARCH</filename>,
<filename>DISTRO</filename>, and also recipe names if
<filename>_pn-</filename><replaceable>recipename</replaceable>
overrides are to be effective).
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-expand-parameter-to-getvar-and-getvarflag-now-mandatory'>
<title>Expand Parameter to <filename>getVar()</filename> and
<filename>getVarFlag()</filename> is Now Mandatory</title>
<para>
The expand parameter to <filename>getVar()</filename> and
<filename>getVarFlag()</filename> previously defaulted to
False if not specified.
Now, however, no default exists so one must be specified.
You must change any <filename>getVar()</filename> calls that
do not specify the final expand parameter to calls that do specify
the parameter.
You can run the following <filename>sed</filename> command at the
base of a layer to make this change:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
sed -e 's:\(\.getVar([^,()]*\)):\1, False):g' -i `grep -ril getVar *`
sed -e 's:\(\.getVarFlag([^,()]*, [^,()]*\)):\1, False):g' -i `grep -ril getVarFlag *`
</literallayout>
<note>
The reason for this change is that it prepares the way for
changing the default to True in a future Yocto Project release.
This future change is a much more sensible default than False.
However, the change needs to be made gradually as a sudden
change of the default would potentially cause side-effects
that would be difficult to detect.
</note>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-makefile-environment-changes'>
<title>Makefile Environment Changes</title>
<para>
<link linkend='var-EXTRA_OEMAKE'><filename>EXTRA_OEMAKE</filename></link>
now defaults to "" instead of "-e MAKEFLAGS=".
Setting <filename>EXTRA_OEMAKE</filename> to "-e MAKEFLAGS=" by
default was a historical accident that has required many classes
(e.g. <filename>autotools</filename>, <filename>module</filename>)
and recipes to override this default in order to work with
sensible build systems.
When upgrading to the release, you must edit any recipe that
relies upon this old default by either setting
<filename>EXTRA_OEMAKE</filename> back to "-e MAKEFLAGS=" or by
explicitly setting any required variable value overrides using
<filename>EXTRA_OEMAKE</filename>, which is typically only needed
when a Makefile sets a default value for a variable that is
inappropriate for cross-compilation using the "=" operator rather
than the "?=" operator.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-libexecdir-reverted-to-prefix-libexec'>
<title><filename>libexecdir</filename> Reverted to <filename>${prefix}/libexec</filename></title>
<para>
The use of <filename>${libdir}/${BPN}</filename> as
<filename>libexecdir</filename> is different as compared to all
other mainstream distributions, which either uses
<filename>${prefix}/libexec</filename> or
<filename>${libdir}</filename>.
The use is also contrary to the GNU Coding Standards
(i.e. <ulink url='https://www.gnu.org/prep/standards/html_node/Directory-Variables.html'></ulink>)
that suggest <filename>${prefix}/libexec</filename> and also
notes that any package-specific nesting should be done by the
package itself.
Finally, having <filename>libexecdir</filename> change between
recipes makes it very difficult for different recipes to invoke
binaries that have been installed into
<filename>libexecdir</filename>.
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
(i.e. <ulink url='http://refspecs.linuxfoundation.org/FHS_3.0/fhs/ch04s07.html'></ulink>)
now recognizes the use of <filename>${prefix}/libexec/</filename>,
giving distributions the choice between
<filename>${prefix}/lib</filename> or
<filename>${prefix}/libexec</filename> without breaking FHS.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-ac-cv-sizeof-off-t-no-longer-cached-in-site-files'>
<title><filename>ac_cv_sizeof_off_t</filename> is No Longer Cached in Site Files</title>
<para>
For recipes inheriting the
<link linkend='ref-classes-autotools'><filename>autotools</filename></link>
class, <filename>ac_cv_sizeof_off_t</filename> is no longer cached
in the site files for <filename>autoconf</filename>.
The reason for this change is because the
<filename>ac_cv_sizeof_off_t</filename> value is not necessarily
static per architecture as was previously assumed.
Rather, the value changes based on whether large file support is
enabled.
For most software that uses <filename>autoconf</filename>, this
change should not be a problem.
However, if you have a recipe that bypasses the standard
<link linkend='ref-tasks-configure'><filename>do_configure</filename></link>
task from the <filename>autotools</filename> class and the software
the recipe is building uses a very old version of
<filename>autoconf</filename>, the recipe might be incapable of
determining the correct size of <filename>off_t</filename> during
<filename>do_configure</filename>.
</para>
<para>
The best course of action is to patch the software as necessary
to allow the default implementation from the
<filename>autotools</filename> class to work such that
<filename>autoreconf</filename> succeeds and produces a working
configure script, and to remove the
overridden <filename>do_configure</filename> task such that the
default implementation does get used.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-image-generation-split-out-from-filesystem-generation'>
<title>Image Generation is Now Split Out from Filesystem Generation</title>
<para>
Previously, for image recipes the
<link linkend='ref-tasks-rootfs'><filename>do_rootfs</filename></link>
task assembled the filesystem and then from that filesystem
generated images.
With this Yocto Project release, image generation is split into
separate
<link linkend='ref-tasks-image'><filename>do_image_*</filename></link>
tasks for clarity both in operation and in the code.
</para>
<para>
For most cases, this change does not present any problems.
However, if you have made customizations that directly modify the
<filename>do_rootfs</filename> task or that mention
<filename>do_rootfs</filename>, you might need to update those
changes.
In particular, if you had added any tasks after
<filename>do_rootfs</filename>, you should make edits so that
those tasks are after the
<link linkend='ref-tasks-image-complete'><filename>do_image_complete</filename></link>
task rather than after <filename>do_rootfs</filename>
so that the your added tasks
run at the correct time.
</para>
<para>
A minor part of this restructuring is that the post-processing
definitions and functions have been moved from the
<link linkend='ref-classes-image'><filename>image</filename></link>
class to the
<link linkend='ref-classes-rootfs*'><filename>rootfs-postcommands</filename></link>
class.
Functionally, however, they remain unchanged.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-removed-recipes'>
<title>Removed Recipes</title>
<para>
The following recipes have been removed in the 2.1 release:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><filename>gcc</filename> version 4.8:
Versions 4.9 and 5.3 remain.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>qt4</filename>:
All support for Qt 4.x has been moved out to a separate
<filename>meta-qt4</filename> layer because Qt 4 is no
longer supported upstream.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>x11vnc</filename>:
Moved to the <filename>meta-oe</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>linux-yocto-3.14</filename>:
No longer supported.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>linux-yocto-3.19</filename>:
No longer supported.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>libjpeg</filename>:
Replaced by the <filename>libjpeg-turbo</filename> recipe.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>pth</filename>:
Became obsolete.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>liboil</filename>:
Recipe is no longer needed and has been moved to the
<filename>meta-multimedia</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>gtk-theme-torturer</filename>:
Recipe is no longer needed and has been moved to the
<filename>meta-gnome</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>gnome-mime-data</filename>:
Recipe is no longer needed and has been moved to the
<filename>meta-gnome</filename> layer.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>udev</filename>:
Replaced by the <filename>eudev</filename> recipe for
compatibility when using <filename>sysvinit</filename>
with newer kernels.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>python-pygtk</filename>:
Recipe became obsolete.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>adt-installer</filename>:
Recipe became obsolete.
See the
"<link linkend='migration-2.1-adt-removed'>ADT Removed</link>"
section for more information.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-class-changes'>
<title>Class Changes</title>
<para>
The following classes have changed:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><filename>autotools_stage</filename>:
Removed because the
<link linkend='ref-classes-autotools'><filename>autotools</filename></link>
class now provides its functionality.
Recipes that inherited from
<filename>autotools_stage</filename> should now inherit
from <filename>autotools</filename> instead.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>boot-directdisk</filename>:
Merged into the <filename>image-vm</filename>
class.
The <filename>boot-directdisk</filename> class was rarely
directly used.
Consequently, this change should not cause any issues.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>bootimg</filename>:
Merged into the
<link linkend='ref-classes-image-live'><filename>image-live</filename></link>
class.
The <filename>bootimg</filename> class was rarely
directly used.
Consequently, this change should not cause any issues.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><filename>packageinfo</filename>:
Removed due to its limited use by the Hob UI, which has
itself been removed.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-build-system-ui-changes'>
<title>Build System User Interface Changes</title>
<para>
The following changes have been made to the build system user
interface:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para><emphasis>Hob GTK+-based UI</emphasis>:
Removed because it is unmaintained and based on the
outdated GTK+ 2 library.
The Toaster web-based UI is much more capable and is
actively maintained.
See the
"<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_TOAST_URL;#using-the-toaster-web-interface'>Using the Toaster Web Interface</ulink>"
section in the Toaster User Manual for more
information on this interface.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para><emphasis>"puccho" BitBake UI</emphasis>:
Removed because is unmaintained and no longer useful.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-adt-removed'>
<title>ADT Removed</title>
<para>
The Application Development Toolkit (ADT) has been removed
because its functionality almost completely overlapped with the
<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_SDK_URL;#sdk-using-the-standard-sdk'>standard SDK</ulink>
and the
<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_SDK_URL;#sdk-extensible'>extensible SDK</ulink>.
For information on these SDKs and how to build and use them, see the
<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_SDK_URL;'>Yocto Project Application Development and the Extensible Software Development Kit (eSDK)</ulink>
manual.
<note>
The Yocto Project Eclipse IDE Plug-in is still supported and
is not affected by this change.
</note>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-poky-reference-distribution-changes'>
<title>Poky Reference Distribution Changes</title>
<para>
The following changes have been made for the Poky distribution:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>meta-yocto</filename> layer has been renamed
to <filename>meta-poky</filename> to better match its
purpose, which is to provide the Poky reference
distribution.
The <filename>meta-yocto-bsp</filename> layer retains its
original name since it provides reference machines for
the Yocto Project and it is otherwise unrelated to Poky.
References to <filename>meta-yocto</filename> in your
<filename>conf/bblayers.conf</filename> should
automatically be updated, so you should not need to change
anything unless you are relying on this naming elsewhere.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The
<link linkend='ref-classes-uninative'><filename>uninative</filename></link>
class is now enabled by default in Poky.
This class attempts to isolate the build system from the
host distribution's C library and makes re-use of native
shared state artifacts across different host distributions
practical.
With this class enabled, a tarball containing a pre-built
C library is downloaded at the start of the build.</para>
<para>The <filename>uninative</filename> class is enabled
through the
<filename>meta/conf/distro/include/yocto-uninative.inc</filename>
file, which for those not using the Poky distribution, can
include to easily enable the same functionality.</para>
<para>Alternatively, if you wish to build your own
<filename>uninative</filename> tarball, you can do so by
building the <filename>uninative-tarball</filename> recipe,
making it available to your build machines
(e.g. over HTTP/HTTPS) and setting a similar configuration
as the one set by <filename>yocto-uninative.inc</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
Static library generation, for most cases, is now disabled
by default in the Poky distribution.
Disabling this generation saves some build time as well
as the size used for build output artifacts.</para>
<para>Disabling this library generation is accomplished
through a
<filename>meta/conf/distro/include/no-static-libs.inc</filename>,
which for those not using the Poky distribution can
easily include to enable the same functionality.</para>
<para>Any recipe that needs to opt-out of having the
"--disable-static" option specified on the configure
command line either because it is not a supported option
for the configure script or because static libraries are
needed should set the following variable:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
DISABLE_STATIC = ""
</literallayout>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The separate <filename>poky-tiny</filename> distribution
now uses the musl C library instead of a heavily pared
down <filename>glibc</filename>.
Using musl results in a smaller
distribution and facilitates much greater maintainability
because musl is designed to have a small footprint.</para>
<para>If you have used <filename>poky-tiny</filename> and
have customized the <filename>glibc</filename>
configuration you will need to redo those customizations
with musl when upgrading to the new release.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-packaging-changes'>
<title>Packaging Changes</title>
<para>
The following changes have been made to packaging:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>runuser</filename> and
<filename>mountpoint</filename> binaries, which were
previously in the main <filename>util-linux</filename>
package, have been split out into the
<filename>util-linux-runuser</filename> and
<filename>util-linux-mountpoint</filename> packages,
respectively.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>python-elementtree</filename> package has
been merged into the <filename>python-xml</filename>
package.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-tuning-file-changes'>
<title>Tuning File Changes</title>
<para>
The following changes have been made to the tuning files:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
The "no-thumb-interwork" tuning feature has been dropped
from the ARM tune include files.
Because interworking is required for ARM EABI, attempting
to disable it through a tuning feature no longer makes
sense.
<note>
Support for ARM OABI was deprecated in gcc 4.7.
</note>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>tune-cortexm*.inc</filename> and
<filename>tune-cortexr4.inc</filename> files have been
removed because they are poorly tested.
Until the OpenEmbedded build system officially gains
support for CPUs without an MMU, these tuning files would
probably be better maintained in a separate layer
if needed.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-supporting-gobject-introspection'>
<title>Supporting GObject Introspection</title>
<para>
This release supports generation of GLib Introspective
Repository (GIR) files through GObject introspection, which is
the standard mechanism for accessing GObject-based software from
runtime environments.
You can enable, disable, and test the generation of this data.
See the
"<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_DEV_URL;#enabling-gobject-introspection-support'>Enabling GObject Introspection Support</ulink>"
section in the Yocto Project Development Tasks Manual
for more information.
</para>
</section>
<section id='migration-2.1-miscellaneous-changes'>
<title>Miscellaneous Changes</title>
<para>
These additional changes exist:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
The minimum Git version has been increased to 1.8.3.1.
If your host distribution does not provide a sufficiently
recent version, you can install the buildtools, which
will provide it.
See the
"<link linkend='required-git-tar-python-and-gcc-versions'>Required Git, tar, Python and gcc Versions</link>"
section for more information on the buildtools tarball.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The buggy and incomplete support for the RPM version 4
package manager has been removed.
The well-tested and maintained support for RPM version 5
remains.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
Previously, the following list of packages were removed
if package-management was not in
<link linkend='var-IMAGE_FEATURES'><filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename></link>,
regardless of any dependencies:
<literallayout class='monospaced'>
update-rc.d
base-passwd
shadow
update-alternatives
run-postinsts
</literallayout>
With the Yocto Project 2.1 release, these packages are only
removed if "read-only-rootfs" is in
<filename>IMAGE_FEATURES</filename>, since they might
still be needed for a read-write image even in the absence
of a package manager (e.g. if users need to be added,
modified, or removed at runtime).
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The
<ulink url='&YOCTO_DOCS_SDK_URL;#sdk-devtool-use-devtool-modify-to-modify-the-source-of-an-existing-component'><filename>devtool modify</filename></ulink>
command now defaults to extracting the source since that
is most commonly expected.
The "-x" or "--extract" options are now no-ops.
If you wish to provide your own existing source tree, you
will now need to specify either the "-n" or
"--no-extract" options when running
<filename>devtool modify</filename>.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
If the formfactor for a machine is either not supplied
or does not specify whether a keyboard is attached, then
the default is to assume a keyboard is attached rather
than assume no keyboard.
This change primarily affects the Sato UI.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>.debug</filename> directory packaging is
now automatic.
If your recipe builds software that installs binaries into
directories other than the standard ones, you no longer
need to take care of setting
<filename>FILES_${PN}-dbg</filename> to pick up the
resulting <filename>.debug</filename> directories as these
directories are automatically found and added.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
Inaccurate disk and CPU percentage data has been dropped
from <filename>buildstats</filename> output.
This data has been replaced with
<filename>getrusage()</filename> data and corrected IO
statistics.
You will probably need to update any custom code that reads
the <filename>buildstats</filename> data.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The
<filename>meta/conf/distro/include/package_regex.inc</filename>
is now deprecated.
The contents of this file have been moved to individual
recipes.
<note><title>Tip</title>
Because this file will likely be removed in a future
Yocto Project release, it is suggested that you remove
any references to the file that might be in your
configuration.
</note>
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The <filename>v86d/uvesafb</filename> has been removed from
the <filename>genericx86</filename> and
<filename>genericx86-64</filename> reference machines,
which are provided by the
<filename>meta-yocto-bsp</filename> layer.
Most modern x86 boards do not rely on this file and it only
adds kernel error messages during startup.
If you do still need to support
<filename>uvesafb</filename>, you can
simply add <filename>v86d</filename> to your image.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
Build sysroot paths are now removed from debug symbol
files.
Removing these paths means that remote GDB using an
unstripped build system sysroot will no longer work
(although this was never documented to work).
The supported method to accomplish something similar is
to set <filename>IMAGE_GEN_DEBUGFS</filename> to "1",
which will generate a companion debug image
containing unstripped binaries and associated debug
sources alongside the image.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
</section>
</section>
<section id='moving-to-the-yocto-project-2.2-release'>
<title>Moving to the Yocto Project 2.2 Release</title>
<para>
This section provides migration information for moving to the
Yocto Project 2.2 Release from the prior release.
</para>